Harun fails in assassinating the Imam Kazim (as)

The Imam’s laudable deeds and merits spread among the people, and they talked about his knowledge, his clemency, his patience, and his tribulation. So Harun was unable to stand that. He decided to kill him. He ordered fresh dates to be brought to him. He ate some of it. Then he took a container and put into it twenty fresh dates. He took a piece of tread and dipped it into poison. He entered the piece of thread into the eye of the needle. He took a fresh date and put the thread into it and took it out of it, to the extent that it was full of poison. He put that fresh date among the fresh dates. He said to his servant: “Take them to Musa b. Ja‘far and say to him: ‘The Commander of the faithful has eaten of these fresh dates. He asks you by his right to eat them up. He has chosen them to you with his own hand.’ Do not let him leave any of them or give any of them to any person.” The servant carried the fresh dates and brought them to the Imam. He informed him of Harun’s message. The Imam, peace be on him, ordered the servant to bring him some picks. He brought them to him and sat in front of him. The Imam began eating some fresh dates. Al-Rashid had a bitch. The bitch was dear with him. It pulled itself and went out drawing its gold chains. It stood by the Imam. The Imam, peace be on him, took the picks, picked up the poisoned fresh date and threw it to the bitch. It ate it and died. The Imam ate the rest of the fresh dates. The servant took the container to al-Rashid. When al-Rashid saw the container, he asked the servant:
-Has he eaten the fresh dates up?
-Yes, Commander of the faithful.
-How did you see him?
-I did not criticize him for a thing.
Then the servant told Harun about the death of his bitch. So Harun became disordered. He himself went and watched it. He became sure that it died of the poison. He looked at it with astonishment, shook all over, and said: “We have attained nothing of Musa except that we offered him good fresh dates, lost our poison, and killed our bitch! There is no way to (get rid of) Musa!”
Harun failed in assassinating the Imam, peace be on him. That is because Allah saved him from him and turned away his evil attempts from him. ( Al-Bihar, vol. 11, p. 299.)




Reference : THE LIFE OF IMAM MUSA BIN JA'FAR AL-KAZIM

Imam Kazim (as) and the Slave girl of Harun

Harun chose a very beautiful slave girl. He ordered one of his special associate to send the slave girl to the Imam, peace be on him. He thought that the Imam would be fascinated by her. When she reached him, he, peace be on him, said to the messenger of Harun: “Rather, you are happy with your gift! I am in no need of this (slave girl) and the likes of her!”
So the messenger took the slave girl and returned to Harun. He informed him of the words of the Imam, so he boiled with anger and said to him: “Go back to him and say to him: ‘We have imprisoned you not according to your consent; and we have served you not according to your consent.’ Leave the slave girl with him and go away.”
That person informed the Imam of Harun’s statement. He left the slave girl with him and returned to Harun. Harun sent a servant of his to the prison, that he might watch the slave girl. When he reached her, he found her prostrating herself in prayer for her Lord. She did not raise her head and said during her prostration: “Most Holy! Most Holy!”
So the servant went to Harun quickly and told him about her condition. Harun said: “By Allah, Musa b. Ja‘far has bewitched her! Bring her to me!”
She was brought to him. She was shaking all over and looking towards the heaven. She was remembering and glorifying Allah. So Harun asked her:
-What is the matter with you?
-My matter is wonderful! I was standing and he was standing and performing prayers by day and night. After he had finished his prayers, I asked him: “Have you any need to give it to you?”
-So the Imam said: What is my need with you?
-I have been brought to you to grant your needs.
The Imam said: “What are those?” He indicated with his hand to a direction. I turned. Suddenly I saw a garden full of flowers. I could not reached its end from its beginning with my eye, nor could I reached its beginning from its end. In it there were sitting places furnished with embroideries and silk. There were male and female servants. I have never seen the like of their faces in beauty, nor have I seen the like of their clothes. They were wearing green silk, crowns, pearls, and corundum. In their hands were ewers, handkerchiefs, and all kinds of food. So I prostrated myself in prayer and continued so until this servant made me rise. I saw myself where I was.
Harun harbored malice against her, so he said to her:
-O Wicked! Perhaps you had slept and dreamt of that!
-No, by Allah, my master, I had seen that before I prostrated myself in prayer. So I prostrated myself in prayer for that.
As a result al-Rashid turned to his servant and ordered him to arrest the slave girl and to conceal the event lest the people should hear of it. So the servant took her and detained her in his house. However, she devoted herself to the acts of worship and prayer. When she was asked about that, she said: “In this manner I saw the righteous servant. She added: “When I saw what I saw, the servants called me: ‘O so-and-so, go far away from the righteous servant, that we may come in to him. That is because we want to serve him.” She dedicated herself to the acts of worship until she died. (  Al-Menaqib, vol. , pp. 263-264.)




Reference : THE LIFE OF IMAM MUSA BIN JA'FAR AL-KAZIM

The Supplication of Kifayat al-Bela

Al-Fedl narrated, saying: “I was the chamberlain of al-Rashid. One day he came towards me angrily. There was a sword in his hand, and he was turning the sword. He said to me: ‘By my kinship to Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, if you do not bring me my cousin, I will cut off your head.’”
Al-Fedl was afraid and shook all over, so he asked al-Rashid:
-Whom shall I bring to you?
-Al-Hijazi.
-Which Hijazi?
-Musa b. Ja‘far b. Muhammed b. ‘Ali b. al-Husayn b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib.
Al-Fedl was afraid of Allah lest evil should be at his hand. However, he thought of Harun’s vengeance and violence, so he responded to him. Al-Rashid asked al-Fedl to bring him two whips and two headsmen, and he brought them. Al-Fedl said: [I went to the house of Abu Ibrahim (Musa). I arrived at ruins where was a hut built of palm branches stripped of their leaves. Suddenly I found a black servant. I said to the servant: “Ask you master to give me permission (to enter his house), may Allah have mercy on you.” He said to me: “Come in. He has neither a chamberlain nor a door.” I came in. Suddenly, I found a black man. There were scissors in his hand. He was cutting the flesh of his forehead and his nose due to his too much prostration. I greeted him and said:]
-Respond to al-Rashid.
-What does al-Rashid want from me? Has his comfort not distracted him from me?
The Imam quickly prepared himself and said: “Were it not for that I heard a tradition from my grandfather Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, who said, ‘Obeying the supreme ruler for precautionary dissimulation is a must,’ I would not go.” He, peace be on him, went with al-Fedl, and he said to him:
-Be ready for the punishment, O Abu Ibrahim!
-Is He Who owns the world and the hereafter not with me? Al-Rashid will do no evil to me today, Allah willing.
Al-Fedl said: “I saw the Imam waving his hand over his holy head three times.”

-Here I am!
-Have you brought me my cousin?
-Yes.
-Did you bother him?
-No.
-Do not let him know that I am angry with him. For I have excited against myself something I did not want. Let him come in.
The Imam, peace be on him, came in. When al-Rashid saw him, he rose for him, embraced him, and said to him:
-Welcome to my cousin, my brother, and inheritor! What has prevented you from visiting us?
The Imam, peace be on him, answered him paying no attention to him, saying to him: “Your wide kingdom, and your love for the world.”
Al-Rashid ordered al-ghaliya[1]. It was brought to him, and he perfumed the Imam with his hand. Then he ordered some money to be given to the Imam, who said: “Were it not for that I wanted to marry the singles from among the family of Abu Talib lest his progeny should cease, I would never accept it.” Then the Imam, peace be on him, went away saying: “Praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of the worlds!”
Harun turned to al-Fedl and said to hi: “O al-Fedl, when you went to bring him to me, I saw some people surrounding my house. There were swords in their hands, and they inserted them in the foundation of the house. They said: ‘If he harmed the grandson of Allah’s Apostle, we would make the earth to swallow him up and his abode! If he treated him well, we would leave him and go away!’”
Al-Fedl hurried to the Imam and asked him:
-What did you say and were saved from al-Rashid’s punishment?
-The supplication of my grandfather ‘Ai b. Abi Talib, peace be on him. When he recited it, he defeated all those horsemen and troops who advanced against him. This supplication is called Kifayat al-Bela’. It is as follows: “O Allah, through You I rush upon (my enemy), through You I try, through You I neighbor, through You I attack, through You I win a victory, through You I die, and through You I live. I have submitted my soul to You and entrusted my affair to You. There is neither force neither strength save through Allah, the Exalted, the Great. O Allah, You created me, provided me, and veiled me from people. You have freed me from need through the favor of that which You entrusted to me. So when I fall, You return me. When I stumble, You release me from my stumble. When I become ill, you heal me. When I supplicate you, You grant my supplication. O my Master, be pleased with me, for You have pleased me!” ( Uyun Akhbar al-Rida. Al-Bihar.)




Reference : THE LIFE OF IMAM MUSA BIN JA'FAR AL-KAZIM

Harun accepts that Imam Musa (as) is the true Imam

al-Ma’mun related that to them, saying: “One year I went with him (al-Rashid) to perform the hajj. When he arrived in Medina, he said: ‘Let no man from its inhabitants or from the Meccans whether they are of the children of the Emigrants and the Ansar or of the Banu Hashim unless he makes me know his lineage and his family.’ The delegates came to him one by one. They made the chamberlain know their lineage. Harun gave them permission (to meet him) and gave them gifts according to their rank and position. One day al-Fedl b. al-Rabi‘, his chamberlain, walked towards him and said to him: ‘There is a man at the door; he claims that he is Musa b. Ja‘far b. Muhammed b. ‘Ali b. al-Husayn b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib.’
“When Harun heard of that, he ordered those sitting in his gathering to cling to respect and calmness. Then he said to his chamberlain: ‘Permit him; and let him not dismount except on my carpet.’”
The Imam, peace be on him, walked towards (Harun). Al-Ma’mun described him, saying: “Surely he was an old man; worship exhausted him. He looked like an old, small (water) skin; prostration injured his face. When Harun saw him, he rose for him. The Imam wanted to dismount, but al-Rashid shouted: ‘No by Allah, (you should not dismount) except on my carpet.’ So the chamberlain prevented him from dismounting. We looked at him with admiration and magnification. He walked riding his mount to the carpet. The chamberlains and the leading figures of the people surrounded him. Harun received him. He kissed him on the face and the eye. He took him by the hand and seated him in the front of his gathering. He asked him about his conditions, talked with him, and said to him:”
-O Abu al-Hasan, how may (persons) are dependent on you?
-Over five hundreds.
-Are they your children?
-Most of them are followers and servants. As for my children, they are
thirty and some.
-Why do you not marry the women to their cousins?
-The hand falls short of that (lit. I do not have money).
-What about the country estate?
-It sometimes produces and sometimes does not produce.
-Are you indebted?
-Yes.
-How much?
-About ten thousand dinars.
-Cousin, I will give you an amount of money to marry your children and to
plant your country estates.
-You have linked your womb (relatives). Allah has thanked you for this beautiful intention. The blood relationship is touching and close. The lineage is one. Al-‘Abbas is the uncle of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and full brother of his father. He is the uncle of ‘Ali b. Abi Talib and full brother of his father. May Allah not send you far from doing that. He has opened you hand, made your origin honorable, and made high your lineage.
-Certainly, I will do that, Abu al-Hasan.
-Surely Allah, the Great and Almighty, has made it incumbent on rulers to relive the poor from among the community, to pay the debts of the indebted, and to clothe those naked. You are appropriate to do that.
-I will do that, Abu al-Hasan.
Then the Imam, peace be on him, went away. Harun rose to honor him; he kissed him on the forehead. Then he turned to his children and said to them: “Go before your uncle and master; take the stirrup; arrange his clothes; and accompany him to his house.” They set out to serve the Imam. Meanwhile, the Imam, peace be on him, confided a secret to al-Ma’mun. He gave him good news of that he would be a caliph. He asked him to be kind to his children. After they had served the Imam and accompanied him to his house, al-Ma’mun said: “I was the boldest of the children of my father (in asking him).” When the people scattered, I (al-Ma’mun) asked him:
-O Commander of the faithful, (a man came in). You magnified (the man), rose for him from your gathering, received him, seated him in front of the gathering, sat down behind him, and then you ordered us to take the stirrup on his behalf. Who was that man?
-This is the Imam of the people, the Proof of Allah's mercy to His creation (Hajjatullah) and His caliph among His servants.
- O Commander of the faithful, do these qualities not belong to you? Are they not in you?
-I am outwardly the Imam of the masses by force and through oppression, while Musa b. Ja‘far is the Imam in truth. And surely he, by Allah, is more worthy of being the successor of the Messenger of Allah as the caliph than I am and anyone else among all the people. And by Allah, If you yourself attempt to take such caliphate from me, I shall take it away from you even if that means gouging your eyes, for power is blind.
Harun remained in Yethrib (Medina) for some days. When he intended to leave, he ordered a little amount of money to be given to the Imam; the amount was two hundred dinars. He asked al-Fedl b. al-Rabi‘ to apologize to the Imam on his behalf. Al-Ma‘mun was astonished at the little gift his father gave to the Imam in spite of his magnifying and respecting him. He said to him: “O Commander of the faithful, you gave five thousand dinars to the children of the Emigrants and of the Ansar, all Quraysh, the Banu Hashim, and those who had unknown lineage. You magnified and respected Musa b. Ja‘far; nevertheless, you gave to him two hundred dinars which was the meanest gift you gave to any of the people.”
Harun became displeased with al-Ma’mun and shouted at him, saying: “Silence! May you have no mother! If I gave this (Imam Musa) what I had promised, he would hit me in the face with one hundred thousand swords of his followers. The poverty of this and of his household is safer to me and you than making their hands open.”( Al-Bihar, vol. 11, p. 270-272.)




Reference : THE LIFE OF IMAM MUSA BIN JA'FAR AL-KAZIM

The Martydom of Imam Reza (as)

Al-Ma’mun had fear for his kingdom and supreme authority. He was careful of that the people would break out in rebellion against him. As a result he decided to assassinate the Imam. He took some grapes and mixed them with poison, and then he asked the Imam to come. When the Imam came, he gave him a bunch of grape and said to him: “O Son of Allah’s Apostle, I have never seen grape better than this!”
The Imam looked at him and said to him: “Perhaps, there is grape better than it in the Garden!” He refused to take the bunch of grape from him. However, al-Ma’mun insisted on that and forced the Imam to have some of it. The Imam ate some of it and threw the rest away. He left the gathering, and al-Ma’mun asked him: “Where to?”
“To the place to which you have ordered me to go,” replied the Imam.
The Imam quickly went to his house. He suffered from severe pain, for the poison cut off his intestines. Meanwhile, he suffered painful loneliness and being away from his family and his homeland. Shortly after that, he passed away. That great soul ascended to its Creator! It was of Allah’s Light! Allah created it to light with it the utter darkness, to guide the perplexed, to make the oppressed secure, and to make the fearful take refuge with it. How ever, the evil, tyrannical forces put out the light of the star and deprived man of making use of its light!
The Islamic world was afflicted with that great tragedy and lost much good out of his death. The exaltedness and glory of the Muslims came to an end. They missed him who showed affection to them, was kind to them, guided them to good, and sent them far from sins and evil acts.
As for al-Ma’mun, he impatiently looked forward for the death of the Imam. When he heard of his death, he affected sadness to cover the crime and said to the people: “I hoped I died before you, but Allah refused all things except what He willed!”
He ordered him to be prepared for burial. When the Imam was washed and shrouded, he was carried to his final resting place.
The people escorted the Imam to his final resting-place in a way the like of which Khuresan never witnessed throughout its historical stages. Al-Ma’mun walked behind the great coffin; he was bare-footed and headed, saying at the top of his voice: “Your death has made a gap in Islam; Allah’s decree has overcome my decree in respect with you!”
The sacred body was brought to the graveyard. A grave beside that of Harun al-Rashid was dug for it and buried in it. Along with it was buried clemency, knowledge, and generosity. A lamp from among the Imams of guidance was buried in the land of Tus. That pure land has become sacred and reached the zenith in honor and glory, for all the Muslims had surrounded it with a halo of honoring and sacredness. Al-Ma’mun was asked about the reason for burying the Imam beside his father Harun al-Rashid, and he answered: “That may Allah forgive Harun due to his neighboring to al-Rida!” This is a weak thought, for every person is buried along with his own deeds; the honor of neighboring does not benefit him. For this reason Di‘bil al-Khaza‘i refuted al-Ma’mun, saying:
There are two graves in Tus: (The grave of the one who is) the best of all the people, and that of the most wicked of them; this is among the lessons.
The dirty one (Harun) does not take advantage of the grave of the pure one (al-Rida); and there is no harm on the pure one due to his being near to the dirty one.
How far! Every one is hostage to that which his hands earn; therefore take or leave whatever you wish!
This is the thinking of justice and truth. Harun’s nearness and neighboring to the Imam will not avail him, for his hands were stained with the blood of the progeny of the Prophet; he spread among them killing and execution, and made sadness and mourning live in their houses.



Reference : THE LIFE OF IMAM MUSA BIN JA'FAR AL-KAZIM

Yehya Bin al-Husayn Bin Zayd Bin ‘Ali Bin al-Husayn, peace be on him.

He is among the companions of Imam Musa. He maintained the creed of the Waqifites. He is one of the witnesses for the will of Imam Musa, peace be on him. He asked his father to show him the way to the place where his uncle ‘Isa had disappeared, that he might go to him and see him. However, his father refused to tell him about that, for he feared that ‘Isa’s affair would appear, and the authorities would come to know of him. Yehya insisted on that, so his father said to him: “Surely this affair will trouble him. I fear that he will move from his house as a sign of hating your meeting with him. So you will disturb him.” Yet, Yehya begged his father for along time until he was pleased with that. He responded to him, prepared his travel to Kufa, and said to him:
“When you arrive in Kufa, then ask about the houses of Banu Hay. When you are shown the way to them, then go to them through the way so-and-so. You will see a house in the middle of the way; the house has a door with so-and-so quality. Know it and sit far from it at the beginning of the way. He will come towards you at the sunset. He is middle-aged; his face is covered; prostration has made a mark on his forehead. He is wearing a woolen jubbah. He brings water with a camel and he drives the camel. He does not put a foot and does not lift it except through the remembrance of Allah, the Great and Almighty. His tears flow down his face. So rise, greet him, and embrace him. He will become frightened of you just as a wild animal does. So introduce yourself to him and mention your lineage for him. In this manner he will be sure of you, talk with you for a long time, ask you about us one by one, tell you of his affairs, and be not tired of your sitting with him. Do not stay with for a long time. He will ask you not to return to him. Carry out his orders in this respect. For surely if you go to him again, he will disappear from you, feel an aversion for you, and move from his place. He will face hardships because of that.”
Yehya went out and headed for Kufa. When he arrived in it, he headed for the way of the Banu Hay in the afternoon. He came to know of the house, and then he sat at the beginning of the way. When the sun sat down, ‘Isa came just as al-Husayn had said. He did not put a foot and did not lift it without glorifying Allah, the Most High. His eyes were filled with tears. Yehya rose and embraced him. ‘Isa was afraid of him, so he said to him:
“O Uncle, I am Yehya b. al-Husayn b. Zayd, your nephew.”
When ‘Isa heard that, he embraced him and wept, to the extent that he was about to die. Then he made his camel kneel down. He sat with Yehya and asked him about his household, may by man, woman by woman, and boy by boy. Yehya explained their stories, and ‘Isa was crying. Then ‘Isa said to Yehya: “O My little son, I fetch water with this camel. I give some of the wage to the owner of the camel and live on the rest. When something prevents me from bringing water, I go to the outskirts of Kufa, collect the vegetables the people throw away, and live on them.
“I have married the daughter of this man, while he does not know from where I am until this time of us. She born me a girl. The girl grew up and came of age, while she does not know who I am. Her mother said to me: ‘Marry your daughter to the son of so-and-so, the water carrier, for he is richer than us.’ He proposed to her. Her mother insisted on that, but I could not tell her that the person was not equal to her (daughter) lest my story should spread. She insisted on that, and I asked Allah to suffice me her affair; so she died several days after that. I am sorry that she died and she did not come to know of her nearness to Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.”
Then he adjured his nephew before Allah to go away and not to return. He saw him off.
Ahl al-Bayt led such a life; they were either killed or prisoners or homeless. They were pursued by terror and fear. They were fearful of the oppressive. May Allah reward them for the tragedies, the misfortunes, and the ordeals they faced. ( Maqatil al-Talibiyyin, pp. 408-410.)




Reference : THE LIFE OF IMAM MUSA BIN JA'FAR AL-KAZIM

Hesham Debates With Darar al-Dabbi

Darar al-Dabbi was among those who denied the Imamate. He met with Hisham, and he asked him:
-Do you say that Allah is just and does not wrong?
-Yes.
-If Allah ordered the crippled to walk and to struggle in His way, if He ordered the blind to read the Qur’an and books, then do you think that He was just or unjust?
-Allah does not do that.
-We have come to know that He does not do that, but for argument and dispute, if He did that, was He not unjust in His deed, and He required him to perform a duty which he could not perform?
-If He did that, then He would be unjust.
-Tell me about Allah, the Great and Almighty: Has He charged mankind with one religion over which there is no difference, and He does not accept (it) from them unless they perform it just as He has charged them with it?
-Yes.
-Has He given them a proof of the existence of that religion or has He charged with something of whose existence there is no proof, so He is like him who orders the blind to read books and to order the crippled to go to Mesjids and jihad?
Dirar kept silent. He found no way to pass through. This affair made him tired. Then he turned to Hisham and said to him: There should be a proof, and the proof should not be from your companion (i.e., Imam ‘Ali, peace be on him).
Hisham smiled and said to him:
-There is no difference between you and me except in name.
Dirar began saying:
-Surely I want to resort to you in a certain statement.
-Give me!
-How was the Imamate entrusted to (anyone)?
-Just as Allah entrusted the prophethood to (someone).
-Therefore, the Imam is a prophet!
-No. The inhabitants of the heaven charged someone with the prophethood, and the inhabitants of the earth charged someone with the Imamate. So the angels entrusted someone with the prophethood, and the prophet entrusted someone with the Imamate. The two offices are accomplished through the permission of Allah.
-What is the proof for that?
-The compulsion in this respect.
-How is that?
-This statement has three meanings: The first meaning: Allah raised mandatory after the Prophet; He did not require them, nor did He order them, nor did He prohibit them, and they became like beasts of prey and animals on which there is no mandatory. Do you believe in this, Dirar?
-I do not believe in that.
-The second meaning: All the people after the Prophet became religious scholars and had the same level of knowledge just as he had, to the extent that they were in no need of each other. Therefor, they were in need of (someone else) and came to know the truth over which they did not differ. Do you maintain this, Dirar?
-I do not maintain that, but they are in need of someone other than them.
-The second meaning: There should be a great figure whom the Prophet appointed over them, and who did not forget, nor did he commit mistakes, nor did he wrong (them), who was protected from sins, free from offenses, whom they needed, and who was in no need of them.
Direr kept silent before this flowing knowledge supported by rational proofs that were far from argument and discussion. ( Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 11, pp. 291-229.)




Reference : THE LIFE OF IMAM MUSA BIN JA'FAR AL-KAZIM

Hesham Debates with al-Nazzam

Al-Nazzam maintained that the inhabitants of the Garden would be not immortal in it, and that they would certainly die. He met with Hisham and said to him:
-Surely the inhabitants of the Garden will not stay in it forever. For they will stay just as Allah does. It is impossible for them to be so.
Hisham gave him a decisive argument, saying:
-The inhabitants of the Garden will survive through the One Who makes them stay alive, and Allah survives through none makes Him remain alive.
Al-Nazzam insisted on his thought, saying:
-It is impossible for them to stay forever
Hisham: Into what will they turn?
Al-Nazzam: Sluggishness will befall them.
Hisham: Have you heard that there is in the Garden what souls yearn?
Al-Nazzam: Yes.
So if they yearn and ask their Lord to (let them) stay forever?
Al-Nazzam: Surely Allah will not inspire them.
Hisham: If a man from among the inhabitants of the Garden stretched out his hand to a fruit on a tree to take it, and the tree hanged down to him, then he happened to turn around and looked at another fruit of it and stretched out his hand to take it, but sluggishness befell him; and his hands fastened to two trees; and the two trees raised high, and he was crucified. Have you heard that someone is crucified in the Garden?
Al-Nazzam: This is impossible.
Hisham: What you have said is more impossible than it, i.e., people were created, were caused to enter the Garden, and die therein.
Al-Nazzam went away deserted; he had no proof of that in which he believed.( Al-Keshi, Rijal, pp. 165-184.)



Reference : THE LIFE OF IMAM MUSA BIN JA'FAR AL-KAZIM

Hesham Debates with Yehya Bin Khalid al-Bermeki

Yehya b. Khalid questioned Hisham in the presence of Harun al-Rashid, saying to him:
-O Hisham, tell me of the truth: Could it be in two different directions?
-No.
-Tell me about two persons who dispute with each other and differ over the precept of the religion: Are they right or wrong? Is one of them right and the other wrong?
-They are not void of that; it is not permissible that they both are right.
-Tell me about (Imam) ‘Ali and al-‘Abbas when they sued one another about the inheritance before Abu Bakr: Who was the right and who was the wrong?
Hisham became perplexed; he narrated his perplexity, saying: “If I had said that ‘Ali was wrong, then I would have been unbeliever and withdrawn from me creed. If I had said that al-‘Abbas was wrong, al-Rashid would have cut off my head.” It was really a problem. Shortly after that he remembered the saying of Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on him: “O Hisham, you are still supported by the Holy Spirit as long as you support us with your tongue.” So he came to know that he would not be deserted. He found an answer and said to him: “No mistake issued from them; they both were right. There is (an example) similar to this in the Qur’an. Allah, may His name be great, says in the story of Dawud: And has there come to you the story of the litigants, when they made an entry into the private chamber by ascending over the walls...two litigants, of whom one has acted wrongfully towards the other. Which of the two angels was wrong? And which of them was right? If you said that they both were wrong, then your answer would be similar to my answer itself.”
Yehya replied: “I do not say that the two angels were wrong; rather I say that they both were right. That is because they really did not sued one another, nor did they differ over the judgment. They showed that to draw Dawud’s attention to his mistake, to make him know the judgment, and to inform him of it.”
As a result Hisham said: “So were ‘Ali and al-‘Abbas; they did not differ over the judgment, nor did they really sue one another. They showed the difference and the dispute, that they might draw Abu Bakr’s attention to his error and inform him of his mistake and show him the way to his wronging them in respect with the inheritance. They had no doubt about their affair. They did just as the two angels did.”
Accordingly, Yehya was perplexed and was unable to give an answer. As for al-Rashid, he approved this wonderful explanation Hisham concluded. (  Al-Fusool al-Mukhtara, vol. 1, pp. 24-25. This debate has been briefly mentioned in the book 'Uyun al-Akhbar, vol. 2, p. 15.)



Reference : THE LIFE OF IMAM MUSA BIN JA'FAR AL-KAZIM

Hesham Debates with Amr Ibn Ubayd

Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on him, asked Hisham to tell him about his debates with ‘Amru b. ‘Ubayd, the spiritual leader of the Mu‘tazilites. However, Hisham said to him:
-Surely I magnify you, feel shame of you, so my tongue cannot function before you.
-When I order you (to do) something, then you have to do it.Hisham obeyed the Imam and began telling him about his story with ‘Amru b. ‘Ubayd, saying to him:
-I heard about ‘Amru b. ‘Ubayd and his sitting in Basrah Mesjid. I regarded that as great, for he denied the Imamate and said: “Allah’s Apostle died without (appointing) a testamentary trustee (of authority). So I went out to him. I entered Basrah and went to its Mesjid. I found a great seminar. I saw ‘Amru b. ‘Ubayd wearing a woolen cloak as a loincloth and wearing another cloak as a garment. While the people were questioning him, I asked them to make way for me, and they did. He squatted at the back of the people. Then I asked him:
-O Scholar, I am a stranger! May I ask you a question?
-Yes.
-Do you have eyes?
-O My little son, what a kind of question is this?
-This is my question!
-O My little son, even if your question is foolish?!
-Give me an answer to it.
-Question!
-Do you have eyes?
-Yes.
-What do you see with them?
-I see with them colors and persons.
-Do you have a nose?
-Yes.
-What do you do with it?
-I smell with it.
-Do you have a tongue?
-What do you do with it?
-I speak with it.
-Do you have an ear?
-Yes.
-What do you do with it?
-I hear sounds with it.
-Do you have hands?
-Yes.
-What do you do with them?
-I strike with them, and distinguish the soft from the coarse.
-Do you have legs?
-Yes.
-What do you do with them?
-I move from one place to another with them.
-Do you have a heart?
-Yes.
-What do you do with it?
-With it I perceive all that which comes through these limbs.
-Are these limbs in no need of the heart?
-No.
-How is that, and they are healthy and sound?
-O My little son, surely if the limbs have doubt of a thing, they smell it or taste it, so they send it to the heart; accordingly, certitude is sure, and doubt is false.
-Has Allah installed the heart for the doubt of the limbs?
-Yes.
-So there is no escape from the heart; otherwise the limbs are not sure (of things)?
-Yes.
After Hisham had taken these premises from ‘Amru, he repeated to him that his belief in that Allah’s Apostle died without (appointing) a testamentary trustee (of authority) was invalid, saying to him: -O Abu Merwan, surely Allah has not left your limbs without an Imam (leader); He has appointed an Imam to them to confirm the correct and negate that of which they have doubt; therefore, how did He leave all the creatures in perplexity, doubt, and differences? Why did He not appoint an Imam over them, that they might resort to him when they were doubtful and perplexed, while He has appointed an Imam over your limbs, that you may resort to him when you are doubtful and perplexed?
‘Amru kept silent and was unable to give an answer, for Hisham had blocked all the avenues before him. Then he turned to him and asked him:
-Are you Hisham?
-No.
-Did you sit with him?
-No.
-Where are you from?
-From Kufa.
-Therefore, you are he.
Then he shook hand with him, made him sit in his place, and said nothing until he went away. The Imam was very pleased with this wonderful debate. ( Al-Keshi, Rijal, pp. 176-177. Al-Amali, vol. 1, p. 55. Al-Mas'udi, Murujj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, p. 382.)



Reference : THE LIFE OF IMAM MUSA BIN JA'FAR AL-KAZIM